7 Items To Stockpile To Keep Your Car Running After An EMP

Rich M.
By Rich M. August 6, 2018 07:57

7 Items To Stockpile To Keep Your Car Running After An EMP

Today’s cars and trucks are electronic marvels. Computers control everything from when the transmission shifts to turning on the windshield wipers for you. Ever since computers were first introduced into cars in the 1970s, manufacturers have found more and more functions for those computers to do; some to help the engine run more efficiently and some to make driving easier.

But there’s a problem with that. An endless series of science fiction stories have shown what happens when computers run amok and take over the world. Ever since 2001 a Space Odyssey, out of control computers have been killing people. But what about when the opposite happens and computers just stop working?

That’s what would happen if one of our country’s enemies decided to attack us with an EMP. Rather than killing us by computers going haywire, it would be killing us by our computers breaking. Nothing would work, including our cars.

However, it is possible to have your car work after the EMP is gone. With a few simple preparations, you could be the only one on your block who is still driving, when everyone else is walking. For, as one engineer put it, “What one man can break, another can remake.” All it takes is having the right parts.

Basically, making a car work again, after an EMP requires replacing the damaged electronics. The mechanical parts won’t be damaged at all. So, here’s my list of what you have to have, in order to keep your car running after an EMP:

Computer (or brain)

Cars today have one primary computer which controls everything. This is normally a “black box” hidden under the hood, in the engine compartment. Your biggest problem might be in identifying it. These computers don’t look anything like the one sitting on your desk, nor do they look like what we imagine a black box to look like. They are odd-shaped plastic packages, with connectors somewhere on the side.

Of course, once you buy a replacement computer for your car, you’ll know what it looks like. That will make it much easier to replace. In most cases, the computer is fairly accessible, so you shouldn’t have much trouble replacing it.

Always check any of these parts that you buy. It is not uncommon for auto manufacturers to make mid-year changes to such systems, for a variety of reasons. The one you buy has to match what is already under the hood. So be sure to verify that it is the same. If you can, install it and verify that it works as well. This not only goes for the computer, but the other electronic parts mentioned below.

Related: 14 Preppers Speculate What an EMP Would Look Like in America

Electronic Modules

7 Items to Stockpile to Keep Your Car Running After an EMPIn addition to the computer itself, most cars have various electronic modules of varying sorts. Modern distributors, for example, aren’t the mechanical devices of yesteryear, but rather fully electronic devices, which are actuated by the computer, sending electricity to each spark through a series of solid-state relays.

There are also electronic modules for the antilock braking system and in the transmission. While some of these may survive the EMP, without damage (especially the one in the transmission), you can’t count on that. So you’ll need a full set of them.

Sensors

The computer receives information from a variety of sensors, located around and in the engine. These tell the computer how much oxygen there is in the exhaust, where in the cycle the engine is at any moment, the temperature of the air and gasoline, engine temperature and a host of other information. While the vehicle may run without one or more of these modules, it will not run properly and efficiently without all of them functioning.

A lot of these sensors are nothing more than a pressure switch. Nevertheless, they are critical. So you need a full set of these sensors, in order to ensure that you can get your car running once again.

Tools & Information

Having the above-mentioned electronics is only a part of the problem. Some of those modules and sensors are hidden away in not so obvious places. So, you’ll need the necessary information about where they are located and how to get to them. A printed general service manual will provide you with this information. It will also help you to determine what sensors and modules you need to buy.

One of the best ways of identifying all the electronic components in a vehicle is to look at the vehicle’s electrical schematics. These should be included in whatever service manual you buy. If you don’t understand it, don’t worry, the guy at the parts counter in your local auto parts store probably can help you out. Look for anything that’s drawn as a box and see what it says that it is. Then buy one.

Of course, you’re going to need the tools to replace all those parts as well. A good general mechanics tool set, including ratchets, sockets, extensions, wrenches and other hand tools will be necessary. As you buy your parts, check to see that the tools you have will fit them. There may be a sensor or two that requires a large socket which wouldn’t be in a standard set, in order to remove and install.

Related: Top 10 Vehicles for Your EMP Survival

Diagnostic Computer

Some modules and computer require programming, once installed. I recently had to replace both the antilock brake control module and transmission solenoid module on one of my vehicles. Both of those parts needed to be programmed, once installed. This requires the correct type of diagnostic computer.

Please note that these computers are expensive. This will undoubtedly be the most expensive part of your investment. But don’t cut corners here. Be sure to verify that the diagnostic computer that you are looking at buying will do the work you need it to, before making the purchase. Not all of them can do this sort of programming; some only diagnose.

Gasoline & Other Fluids

What’s the Best Fuel to Stockpile for Survival

The other problem you will have is finding gasoline after the EMP. While there will probably be countless vehicles sitting around with fuel in their tanks, that doesn’t mean that you’ll have access to that fuel. Others will want it for a variety of purposes, including running lawnmowers, chain saws and starting fires. You need your own source of gasoline.

The problem with storing gasoline is that it doesn’t store well. The most volatile hydrocarbons evaporate quickly, reducing the effectiveness of the gasoline. Other components can oxidize, changing their chemical composition. There are a couple of things you can do to help overcome this problem:

  • Rotate your gas supply, constantly using your old gasoline and replacing it with fresh gasoline. As long as you aren’t keeping it for more than six months, it should still be usable.
  • Add a fuel stabilizer. This will extend the shelf life of gasoline another six months, to a year.
  • Store it in a sealed metal container. During World War II, the military shipped gasoline to troops in the Pacific Islands in sealed metal cans. This helped keep it from going bad. The key is to remove as much air (oxygen) as possible and seal the can well.

In addition to gasoline, be sure to store other vehicle fluids. Replacing the transmission module will require draining the transmission fluid. It only makes sense to replace it. Replacing the antilock brake module will necessitate bleeding the lines, which means that you will lose a fair amount of brake fluid. Be sure to have enough fluids for at least one complete change.

Use a Faraday Cage

All of the electronics mentioned above are as susceptible to the EMP as the ones in your car. You will have to protect them from damage until you need them. This is easily accomplished by keeping them stored in a Faraday Cage.

Any metal container can serve as a Faraday Cage, as long as it totally encloses the electronic devices stored inside and those devices are electronically insulated from the metal case. The EMP will travel over the skin of the Faraday Cage, without damaging the items inside. But if any of them are in physical contact with the metal of the cage, the electromagnetic pulse can flow through them, destroying them.

One of the easiest ways of making an effective Faraday Cage is to buy a galvanized steel trash can. It can be lined with 1” thick Styrofoam sheeting, of the type used for insulating sheathing on homes. This is available from any building materials store.

You may also like:

emp tower banner9 Places Where You Can Find Energy After An EMP

How I Got My Own Backyard Fortress For Under $400 (Video)

Where Not To Be During an EMP

Emergency Bag to Keep in Your Car in Case of an EMP

7 Actions to Take Immediately Following an EMP Strike

Please Spread The Word - Share This Post
Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestmail
Rich M.
By Rich M. August 6, 2018 07:57
Write a comment

31 Comments

  1. RORO August 6, 13:14

    SORRY– I UNDERSTAND THE LOGIC BUT PARTS ARE VEHICLE SPECIFIC — WHEN THE VEHICLE DIES B4 AN EMP UNLESS YOU HAVE ANOTHER CAR SAME YEAR MAKE MODEL THOSE PARTS ARE A WASTE —- YEAH BARTER ITEMS OR SALE THEM —- GET MAYBE HALF IF YOU ARE LUCKY — BESIDES WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO USE FOR FUEL —– GET YA ONE OF THOSE MINI TUCKS CONVERT IT TO ALCOHOL AND PARK IT IN A CONTAINER AND BUILD A STILL THERE YA GO PROB SOLVED — FOR THE PRICE OF A CAR AND ALL THOSE PARTS OR THE PRICE OF ALL THOSE WHEN YOU REPLACE THEM 3—4 TIMES

    Reply to this comment
    • HoundDogDave August 6, 18:07

      Finding the same year, make and model will be easy. There will be tens of thousands of abandoned disabled cars, just make sure you have a new ignition lock and key too. Scout your local area now and keep a record of where the vehicles you want are and my be when the time comes. Diesel is the way to go BTW. Disabled semi haulers will be lining the freeways north and south, coast to coast with tanks of fuel ready to be drained into your new vehicle.

      Reply to this comment
  2. Oz August 6, 15:05

    I work in a shop and there is a small problem with this article. Most newer cars, say newer than 2000, will need more then a simple parts replacement. When you replace the PCM, power train control module, or the BCM, body control module, you need to do a re-flash or reprogram of the computer. So unless you have the ability to re-flash, which no one will have if an EMP event happens, you are wasting your time and money. Now my 87 Toyota pick I can replace all modules and PCM without a re-flash.

    Reply to this comment
    • Dave August 6, 16:11

      I solved your problem, get yourself a bicycle

      Reply to this comment
      • left coast chuck August 6, 20:27

        Bicycles are going to be in huge demand after an electrical shutdown. Get bikes and consumables, tires, tubes, patch kits, floor tire pump, tire irons, tire Slime. Extra brake shoes and a spare chain are helpful if you think you are going to be putting many miles on the bike. A spoke wrench and a pedal wrench are specialized tools that you will be glad you purchased. Allen wrenches to fit the Allen screws on your bike are also essential as are box wrenches and open end wrenches to fit the nuts on your bike. An adjustable wrench is okay, but it is easier to mess up the facets on a nut with an adjustable wrench. For long term I would go with open end and box wrenches to fit. Ascertain whether all the fasteners are metric or S.A.E. Sometimes you will have mixed fasteners. Things like luggage racks and bag fittings might be S.A.E. instead of metric. Most of the other fittings should be metric. But there are lots of things that should be that aren’t. I should be rich but I am not.

        Make sure you have platform pedals on the bike. You don’t want clip-ins. You need special shoes to clip in and the special shoes are not designed for long distance walking. With platform pedals you can ride your bike with your 12 inch high elk country boots if you have to. You can also ride your bike wearing flip flops although I strongly recommend against that.

        I wouldn’t do it before hand, but after an EMP/CME, I would remove all reflectors from the bike. Riding around town after dark sharing the road with cars and trucks you want to be seen. After an EMP/CME, you don’t want to be seen after dark. Don’t forget the reflectors embedded in the pedals.

        Reply to this comment
      • Zoraida August 8, 03:32

        That’s a option

        Reply to this comment
    • Roro August 6, 16:50

      Hey oz get ya a shipping container and another 87 toyo truck & park it in the container if ya get 20′ you have some room to store some other stuff put they go up to 53ft you sound mecanically inclined so get a long containe get or build ya a trlr that will fit the width of the container taller wheels are better park both in container & start filling them with supplies (heat resistant supplies) and you will have back up truck (the one.you are using now) for parts except electronics but i would since you will have one in storage get spare electronic partz that will fry ….. keep in truck in container …. if you are somewhat dillagent you migh find a container w/doors on both ends ….that would be sweet…. as they are usually only 8ft wide that makes it a tight squeeze to get in & out fill tank up… put barrel in back of truck unless you wanna take it out for fuel on occasion …. you may want to convert to alcohol & build a still to (make fuel) of course lol…… but anyways a shipping container makes a good cage …. just dont get one beat up & full of holes …… well thats my multible 2 cents for now…….

      Reply to this comment
  3. Dave August 6, 17:53

    Agree with the previous two comments…this is not at all practical. You can buy an old non-electronic 4wd without any susceptible electronics for less than the price of just the computer, which as the other commentor said, would be unusable anyway. Stick to the simple solutions.

    Reply to this comment
    • LA Bill August 6, 20:27

      I agree with Dave. I have already had my SUV’s Service Manager compile and price a complete list of all the computer modules required for my vehicle to start and run correctly. Replacement of those computer modules would cost more than $9,800. Then I would need to buy the re-programming/re-flashing computer(s) required and any specialized required tools and a manufacturer’s service manual to be able to replace the “EMP-fried” computer modules with the new replacement computer modules and re-program the modules I had protected in one or more Faraday Cages.

      Oh . . . . . one more issue to be successfully resolved is the time required to find, access and disconnect all the “fried” computer modules, without damaging any of the wires and connectors (which should be tagged/labeled to identify what it is and where it should be re-installed) or losing any of the hardware needed to reattach the new modules, The labor hours required for the dealer’s trained service technician with all the correct tools, equipment and training to remove the “fried” modules, replace them with the new Faraday Cage-protected modules, including draining and refilling all fluids as needed, and re-program the modules to factory settings was just over 36 hours. I have always felt dealer’s labor hours set for each complete mechanical operation are “generous” in the dealership’s favor. So if the 36 hour labor estimate is cut by 25%, Assuming I can do the work as quickly as the trained service tech, it would still require 27 hours to complete all the work required. Since I couldn’t do all the work in one stretch (with meal / break time of 1 hour for every 5-6 hours of work and sleep time of 8 hours after every 10-12 hours of work needing to be added to the working time to stay focused and sharp while working and prevent mistakes that could prevent the vehicle from operating properly, if at all, and ultimately taking even more time), the total time required to get my SUV running after an EMP event would be approximately 50 hours, or just over two full days working both day and night. That’s assuming I have someplace to do the work, with its own electrical power generating capability to handle the 120 VAC power requirements for around the clock operation, and is out of sight and reach of the post-EMP roving gangs who could cause some work delays or other problems (sorry, the Bat Cave is already occupied and not available for my use).

      It would be less expensive, give me the ability to bug-out with my survival gear quickly, and provide me with the ability to go offroad when needed, if I bought a late-60’s through mid-70’s partially or fully restored Toyota Land Cruiser hardtop that would not be affected by an EMP event with a recently overhauled inline 4- or 6- cylinder carbureted gas or mechanical fuel injected diesel engine, manual 3-speed transmission with overdrive, shiftable 2WD-to-4WD transfer case, new all-terrain tires, front-mounted WARN wench, Hi-Lift Jack, decent interior with good gauges, seats and solid floor pan, and Ham Radio antenna (a good heater and A/C system would also make for a more comfortable drive, if it didn’t kill the vehicle’s MPG with a 4-cylinder engine). This is the best solution I can come up with for my wife and me (both over 65 with some serious medical conditions).

      Reply to this comment
      • left coast chuck August 6, 20:40

        I agree, Bill. I feel after an EMP (and possibly a CME also) your SUV, if it has bench seats would make a good summer cottage. Bust out the windows and put screening over them fastening the screens to the body of the vehicle with JB Weld and stretch out on the bench seats. Of course, this only works if you are short like me. If you are taller than the bench seat is wide, you might be a tad uncomfortable. If you can make the windows go up and down by hand, then I wouldn’t break them out. Won’t be too comfortable in the winter time, but okay for summer in a pinch.

        Otherwise. I think that brand new 2019 Escalade will only be suitable as a road block.

        I have located two potential peppers in my neighborhood. One has an old Volkswagen station wagon. I forget what they called that model. Unfortunately, it looks like it is one of those projects you had great intentions for but never got around to doing.

        The other neighbor has two old Toyota Land Cruisers, the original right hand drive British models. The real Land Cruisers. They do operate as I notice them missing from his driveway every now and then. Those were the favorite of professional guides in Africa. I guess if they can handle the veldt in Africa they can handle cross-country in the PDRK.

        Reply to this comment
      • Bill August 7, 11:04

        This is a good article because it shows just how hard it will be to get a vehicle up and running again, and if a simple vehicle will be that hard to repair, just imagine the grid and everything else and what it will take to get those systems up and running again……..if ever.

        Also, this is assuming that your vehicle is at home parked right next to your repair parts, and not 10 miles away at work or shopping or where ever.

        If I was NOKO, China or Russia or whoever, I would attack when the masses are away from home just to create more chaos. I mean noon central time on a Wednesday when anyone with a job is at work or in school and in the middle of a COLD winter day.

        You walking home 10 miles in office shoes in zero degree weather to get repair parts and walking back to fix your vehicle?

        What about your kids who are stuck at school?

        What if you’re on the 30th floor of an office building, and the elevators are out or worse, you’re stuck in an elevator in the dark?

        How many have a flashlight that is not a rechargeable LED which needs electronics to run, so it’s probably fried as well and you’re still stuck in a dark building on the 30th floor? That’s a lot of stairs to go down in the dark.

        What about electronic security doors in offices now…can they be opened manually?

        For the majority of people today who work in offices, there’s a lot to over come before you even get to your dead vehicle.

        For “ME” I would invest in a good folding bike and put it in my vehicle and leave it there.

        Then invest in a secondary vehicle that still had points and a condenser for its ignition system. I’d ride my bike home and grab my secondary vehicle and start running back to pick up the family.

        Other than getting family, I’m really not sure where you’re going to go that you need a vehicle right away, unless you have a retreat some where away from your current home. Get the family and go into lock down mode, because in a few hours when the sheep start figuring it out that this isn’t a normal power outage, it will get very bad.

        You really need a plan, more than parts. If someone is home, and the power goes out and your vehicle won’t start, and your cell phone is dead, you should really think about filling up everything you own with water, before the towers run dry. Water will be more important in the city and urban areas, than a running vehicle.

        I sit back some times and smile to myself thinking about all the one I.Q. point above plant life people out there who will be looting TV’s, gym shoes and beer, and thinking they really hit the mother load this time, while they walk home grinning like a rat eating cheese, only to realize days later that they should have been grabbing cans of Spam instead.

        Anyway, a good making you think type of article. Keep up the great work.

        Reply to this comment
      • Claude Davis August 7, 16:45

        Instead of talking to the service manager, how about going round junkyards and looking for a vehicle like yours that’s been written off in a crash? The computers are all solid state electronics, so unless they got crunched they’ll be fine. That way you can pick up the parts you need a lot cheaper. Older vehicles are definitely more survivable, but there isn’t an unlimited supply of them.

        Reply to this comment
  4. Gene August 6, 21:10

    This article needs to be removed from the site. If you want to publish an article about transportation after an EMP event, find someone with more than 2 brain cells who knows what they are talking about. As written, this article is 90% BS.

    Reply to this comment
  5. DEFENDER August 6, 21:50

    Will car electronics (in a car stored in a garage) survive ?

    Electronics stored inside the house?

    Reply to this comment
    • Dave August 6, 22:47

      none of the electronic devices stored in the house or the Garage will survive unless you’ve turned it into a Fairaday cage.,((( a metal building with proper grounding.with windows covered with either , metal or a superfine screen))) making sure you use a good copper grounding rod and wire

      Reply to this comment
      • DEFENDER August 7, 13:04

        How about a 2×4 wood frame structure, fully covered with standard metal porch-screen wire, all well grounded ?
        I could build that inside my carport or garage at reasonable cost.

        Reply to this comment
    • Roro August 7, 01:15

      Does no one realize a shipping containe is a metal box …… o well ….. good luck in your endever to servive be well

      Reply to this comment
      • Blucatz August 7, 08:24

        It is not 100% metal….they have wood floors…would not make a good faraday cage without modifying.

        Reply to this comment
        • Roro August 7, 12:23

          Ok lets see not only are they wood they are contaminated and need isolated if you are storing food stuffs in it as well as yoir vehical …(severe insecticides sorry thought this was general knowedge) (teach me to thought) thus you should cover floor any way why not use metal sheet stock … were talking about spend money for vehicals and protective equipment for those vehicles …. how much would it cost to cover floor with metal roofing or even flat sheet metal if you can find it … you actually could use metal foil cover with chip board if you want …. this is not rocket science … not sure but there my even be a metal laden coating you could cover floor with … but if ya could probably get away with just grounding the shipping container at a min. At each corner more is better …. even with adding metal on floor needs grounded.. …. & dont for get nother you want protected can touc the metal … its not perfect you wont know till after the event (no matter what you do if it worked or not) so you are looking at price of container plus prob at least (depending on size) $500 of modifications …. and if in city limits you may need to put it in privacy fence if the facists (used very loosly) even let you have one in your yard some city dont even let you park your rv in your driveway … anyway hope this explians it better (and dont forget the right angle metal flashing in corner if putting metal on floor ….. shippinv containers are just that shipping containers … if ya wanna use them for other stuff modifications are to be expected

          Reply to this comment
  6. Govtgirl August 6, 23:15

    I do not agree with Gene. Newer cars have electronic everything, but some earlier ones may have only a few bits to swap out. And look at the conversations it generated, everything from what you ought to get with that bicycle to a discussion of older vehicles including the ideal go to car.

    Reply to this comment
  7. DEFENDER August 6, 23:30

    1) How about a garage with metal roof and sides, all grounded ?

    2) 2×4 frame, covered with screen wire bldg, grounded. ?

    Well hell, at least my guns will still work.:) Except for electronic optics I guess.

    Reply to this comment
  8. IvyMike August 7, 00:19

    It’s a good enough article, written by a person with the knowledge and experience to do it. Now, I couldn’t do it, it might as well be an article by a brain surgeon telling me how to remove a meningioma with a multi tool and Wild Turkey as the anesthesia.
    The VW station wagon was the Type 411 I think, my sister had one. They all ended up in the junkyard by the time they were three years old.
    The best bugout type vehicle I ever owned was a 67 3/4 ton F250 Camper Special with 16″ mudders and a lot of rust and body modification from it’s early life in the oil fields. I paid 100.00 for it and drove it 3 years till I sold it and bought a Raleigh bicycle. Wish i could have both of them back again.

    Reply to this comment
  9. Wanabe August 7, 18:28

    This article is beyond practical, it is down right impractical. The cost for these items are through the roof, and a diagnostic computer with the necessary software is in the thousands of dollar range. And the know how on using the computer and reprogramming. Just not going to happen. If an EMP hits us then most vehicles are screwed, and we just better come to this realization. Maybe get a dirt bike(motocross) and store it and extra parts. Easier to protect from EMP and easier to evade those wanting to take it from you.

    Reply to this comment
  10. Wannabe August 7, 18:43

    For some reason my post did not well, post. Anyway, we all just need to come to the realization that if an EMP does hit us most vehicles are screwed and will not operate. To buy all these parts, and the computer with necessary software is not practical. The cost is way out there. The number of sensors and modules in a vehicle are more than I want to count. And you better get a new port to plug in the computer because it will be useless as well. Bicycles are a good option, but what about a dirt bike(motorcross)? Smaller and easier to store and protect and very few potential parts to replace. Also easier to evade those who want to take it. Maneuverable in a congested road due to broken down vehicles. Anyway, just a suggestion.

    Reply to this comment
    • left coast chuck August 7, 20:44

      Hey, Wannabe, even a $100 K-Mart special bike beats walking. A motobike is great for short rides on rough ground, but if you want to get home a hybrid or a road bike with wide tires is a better choice. In my article about bikes as a bug-out vehicle I touched on fold-up bikes for the folks who commute long distances or have jobs that take them far away from home. If I commuted from my home to LA on a daily basis it is a given I would have a fold-up bike locked in the trunk. LA is 75 miles away. Even assuming I could do 25 miles a day walking and that is a huge assumption, that makes it a three full days of hiking. Very easily covered in a day and a half of bike riding, even in my advanced stage of decrepitude.

      Reply to this comment
      • WNnabe August 8, 12:40

        I agree chuck, bicycles are better long term and especially if you find yourself stranded miles from home. I am just referring to the article stating using your vehicle after emp hits. Thought smaller motorcycle would be easier and cheaper to accomplish this. I’m sure they don’t make fold up motor bikes. Lol . At least I don’t think so.

        Reply to this comment
  11. KP August 7, 23:33

    every one is talking about electronics and the autos of today why not get a 67 VW bug and a 63 chevy pick up like i have. many many people collect oldie goldies, how much damage would happen to old cars? points, generators, solenoid ???

    Reply to this comment
  12. wormdirt August 7, 23:44

    It would be cheaper to acquire a pre-HEI vehicle than attempting to stockpile the aforementioned items. That done, then stock up on lubricants, filters, belts, hoses, brake parts, etc.

    Reply to this comment
  13. Stormvet1st August 8, 01:07

    Faraday cage What about spray foam inside the galvanized garbage can? Would that not make sure your got every nook and cranny? I have yet to find anyone mention this and cannot believe I am the first to think of it.

    Reply to this comment
    • left coast chuck August 8, 05:09

      Any substance that acts as an insulator for electricity will work. Insulation foam sprayed on the inside of the can if that is your choice, cardboard liner on the inside of the can— at least that is the advice of the majority of the folks who claim to know. You can try the radio procedure to see if you can hear the radio inside the can. I am not convinced that is a 100% reliable test, but others place great credence in it. We will all know for sure what works and what doesn’t if we experience a CME/EMP.

      Reply to this comment
  14. Big Kahunnah August 8, 13:24

    Fool proof answer: Mercedes 240 D. Faraday box in trunk. Spare battery, four glow plugs, starter, voltage regulator and ignition switch roll electric wire and electric tape. ( all used from junk yard or internet (less than $300.00) Best in you can get one with a manual transmission. u r set

    Reply to this comment
View comments

Write a comment

Your e-mail address will not be published.
Required fields are marked*

FOLLOW US ON:

  • facebook
  • Pinterest
  • twitter
  • Google +