Which Batteries Are Best for Survival Situations?

Curtis Lee
By Curtis Lee October 10, 2016 09:38

Which Batteries Are Best for Survival Situations?

When it comes to most survival situations, batteries are often overlooked. Too many people assume that all they need to do is make sure their battery operated survival gear is ready to go with new alkaline batteries and that they have a fresh pack of spares. This is an unfortunate assumption!


Visual reference of common battery sizes. The black rectangular battery is the 9 volt and the red battery in the middle-right is the AAA battery.

Battery Basics: Size and Chemistry

There are five primary battery sizes in the United States: D, C, AA, AAA and 9 volt. Most batteries fall into three categories: alkaline, lithium and nickel.

Alkaline batteries are what the average person imagines when they picture a battery. There are other similar types, such as carbon zinc (aka: “heavy duty”), but we won’t get into these battery types that much because alkaline batteries should not be used in survival situations. We’ll touch more on this throughout the article.

Lithium batteries come in many varieties. There are both rechargeable and non-rechargeable types. Two of the more common rechargeable types are lithium-ion and lithium-polymer. Two common non-rechargeable types are lithium-iron disulfide (occasionally referred to as “voltage compatible lithium batteries”) and lithium-manganese dioxide (commonly referred to as CR 123A batteries).


1. Lithium-polymer batteries are often rectangular in shape.  
2. AA size lithium-iron disulfide battery.
3. Three CR123A lithium-manganese dioxide batteries shown with an AA battery.

The two most common types of nickel-based batteries are NiCd (nickel cadmium) and NiMH (nickel metal hydride). NiCd is fairly old battery technology and is still sold today, but usually only available from specialty retailers. NiMH are still sold almost anywhere batteries are sold.78

For the sake of brevity, we will only concern ourselves with the following two battery specifications: volt and milliampere-hour (commonly abbreviated as mAh). Without getting too technical, a volt is analogous to water pressure, such as pounds-per-square-inch, while mAh is analogous to water flow, such as gallons-per-minute. The typical AA size alkaline battery can produce 1.5 volts and holds about 2,500 mAh of electricity.

Batteries for Short-Term Survival Situations

In a survival situation lasting up to a few weeks, you’ll want to use lithium-iron disulfide batteries in AAA or AA size. These are currently sold as Energizer Lithium batteries in the United States.

If you have any flashlights, radios, signaling devices, etc. that need batteries, do you best to find devices that can use these batteries. Energizer Lithium batteries are great for short-term survival situations for several reasons:

  1. They handle temperature extremes much better than most batteries on the market. In freezing temperatures, alkaline and nickel based batteries won’t work or will have greatly reduced performance.
  2. They are lightweight.
  3. They have a very long shelf life. Energizer Lithium batteries are advertised has having a 20 year shelf life.
  4. They don’t leak. Alkaline batteries often leak, leaving a corrosive residue.
  5. Lithium-iron disulfide batteries can produce more power for a longer period of time than alkaline batteries. While an alkaline battery is around 1.5 volts, a lithium-iron disulfide battery has about 1.6 volts (for the AA and AAA sizes).

Related: How to Get Power Out of Your Dead Batteries

So what are the disadvantages? Here are a few:

  1. They only come in AAA, AA and 9 volt sizes. You may have survival equipment that only uses C or D batteries, although this can often be remedied by using a battery spacer.
  2. Compared to alkaline batteries, lithium-iron disulfide batteries are more expensive.
  3. The slightly higher voltage could harm some electronic devices. This is going to be a rare situation, but it could arise, such as when powering an insulin pump or other device with sensitive electronics.
  4. They’re not rechargeable.
  5. You might be wondering about CR123A lithium batteries – why not use those, especially since they have more power at 3.0 volts? You can, as they provide excellent performance. However, more devices use AA or AAA batteries than CR123A batteries. Additionally, CR123A batteries are more expensive and typically harder to find.

Batteries for Long-Term Survival Situations

If you need batteries to power devices in an extended survival or off-grid situation, you’re going to need a rechargeable option. I recommended the low self-discharge (LSD) NiMH battery, and here’s why.

First, if you’re living off the grid for several years or more, you’re most likely going to need to recharge your batteries from a renewable source, like solar, hydro or wind. Due to the very nature of these power sources, you’re unlikely to have a steady, reliable and consistent flow of electricity. As a result, you need batteries that are forgiving to interruptions or dips in power when recharging.

NiCd batteries are the most forgiving when it comes to inconsistent charging, but only have about one-half to one-third the mAh of a similarly sized NiMH battery.

Second, LSD NiMH batteries will hold their charge while being stored for a very long time. For example, eneloops, which are a type of LSD NiMH battery, will have 70% of its original charge after 10 years. Most “regular” NiMH batteries will lose most of its charge after only one year.

Third, LSD NiMH batteries perform well in high current draw applications, much better than alkaline and comparable to lithium based batteries.

There is essentially just one disadvantage to using LSD NiMH batteries: It provides only 1.2 volts. To put that in perspective, alkaline batteries use 1.5 volts, and lithium batteries use between 1.6 and 3.7 volts.

Related: How to Build Your Own Solar Panels

So why not use rechargeable lithium batteries?

There are plenty of issues:

  1. They require special charging algorithms that don’t get along well with unsteady electricity flow. This is why many solar charging systems have a built-in battery to serve as a “buffer” between the solar cells and the device being charged.
  2. Most rechargeable lithium batteries only last about 1,000 cycles or less; usually the cycle life is closer to 500 or so. LSD NiMH batteries, such as eneloops, have lives that range between 2,000 and 3,000 cycles. (A “cycle” refers to one charge and discharge event. For instance, if you have a laptop that’s fully charged, then you use it until the battery runs out, then you recharge it to full capacity, that represents one cycle.)
  3. They’re a fire risk. Perhaps you’ve heard a few recent news stories about batteries catching fire or exploding? Those are lithium-based batteries, not nickel-based.
  4. In a survival situation, you’ll want as many devices as possible capable of using the same battery. Since there is such a wide range of rechargeable lithium options, it’ll be harder to standardize the batteries among the devices.

Why Are Alkaline Batteries Bad in Survival Situations?

Alkalines are a no-no, because they leak, can’t be stored as long as lithium-iron disulfide or LSD NiMH batteries and have poor low-temperature performance. Leaking is a problem, not just because the battery you thought you can use is now bad, but because the leakage can potentially damage the device it’s in. If the leakage has gone on long enough, the device could be ruined or at best, require thorough cleaning.

Last Piece of Battery Advice


Eneloop branded C and D battery spacers for AA batteries.

Preparing for survival scenarios can be made a little easier by using electronic devices that utilize the same batteries, specifically the AA size. This allows batteries to be interchangeable between your survival equipment and you only have to worry about having a supply of one type of batteries. There’s also the fact that the average retailer will often have more AA batteries for sale than any other type.

If you must use a device that takes C or D batteries, you can always use a spacer. For C sized applications, you can make your own spacer out of anything that will widen the AA battery. After all, a C battery is the same length as the AA battery, just wider. For a D battery, a proper spacer is recommended.

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Curtis Lee
By Curtis Lee October 10, 2016 09:38
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  1. Rocketman October 10, 14:03

    In your article you said the three ways (solar, wind and hydro) of generating power (electricity) are not consistent.
    You are mostly right, but Hydro meaning water is consistent unless you are using a water source that dries up in periods of low rain. The sun comes up every day but many days are cloudy so solar is not consistent. There are many days that are not very windy and some days with virtually no wind at all. But the Streams, creeks of any real size never stop flowing, so generating power from water is very feasible if you have access to a stream to turn a water wheel.

    Reply to this comment
    • Desert.warrior October 28, 15:06

      Here in Arizona, the sun is pretty consistent all year round. So solar is the way to go down here

      Reply to this comment
    • Rick April 28, 15:58

      I use 3 sets of Harbor Freight Tools 45 Watt solar kits connected in parallel. I average 12-14V.D.C. with spikes to 22V. They are connected to a 1000 watt charge control .A 450 watt wind turbine is also on line. They sole purpose is to charge a bank (5) of deep cycle batteries so I need only switch on the inverter. This setup is for winter outages so far ,but is worthy of SHTF time also if using only one or two things at a time. My solar is the mainstay as wind is a mostly winter thing for my location.BTW I get over 12.5 V.D.C. on cloudy days in the Adironks.Rick.

      Reply to this comment
  2. TinyTim October 10, 14:07

    Long-term alternative: If you don’t need to be mobile, why use portable batteries at all?
    With appropriate voltage adapters, EVERYTHING can be connected to a wet-cell battery bank charged by solar, wind and “other” power sources. After your battery bank wears out, you can make your own. If Benjamin Franklin can do it, so can you!

    Reply to this comment
  3. Mike S October 10, 15:50

    Excellent review. Comprehensive, but, understandable. I commute by bicycle several times per week. I use 12 AAA batteries everyday. I use mostly Tenergy, with some Eneloops for diversity.

    Most people use AA/AAA for a majority of home devices. I don’t use CR123s because I don’t believe there are rechargeable options. And if there were, I would still need AA/AAA batteries. So I just skip the CR123s.

    Another consideration are smart chargers. Use a smart charger.

    Get a solar recharger. And, smart charger(s) with a USB jack. And, a fistful of adapters.

    I keep a couple packs of new Duracells to use, in case of an emergency, while my recharger is put into action.

    I use several 3 and 4 cell Lux Pro lights. They are LED lights. LEDs are very bright and use much less power.

    Reply to this comment
  4. Ginny October 10, 22:52

    I’m looking for a solar rechargable laptop battery-20 volts

    Can anybody help me?

    Thanks,,in advance.

    Reply to this comment
  5. RC July 11, 23:07

    I’m sorry but I don’t buy the marketing for batteries at all. You mention that Eneloops have 2000-3000 discharge cycles, but I have used these to power a wireless mouse for years. In my experience after about 20-30 discharge cycles they were pretty much toast (& at that point a charge would only last 2-3 days)… Somewhat surprising considering that’s a pretty low power situation. Granted there might be some other factor like house power or power surges impacting he batteries, I CAN confirm I was using the eneloop charger at all times. Kind kudos to you for your research and this in-depth article. Would suggest a ‘caveat emptor’ (buyer beware) to all when purchasing batteries based on marketing claims…

    Reply to this comment
  6. Bob Boskey June 6, 15:54

    PowerFilm rollable solar panels fit in a tube and can be rolled out to about 1 X 1.5 feet and can hang from a backpack while hiking. Great output

    Reply to this comment
  7. crazysquirrel February 11, 22:47

    About alkaline batteries –
    Just put some in your pocket to heat them up.
    Once they start using power to power something, they will warm themselves to some degree depending on the load.

    Yes they CAN leak. But usually someone leaves them in a device for a long time, unused.

    Lithium batteries do have a long shelf life – keywords shelf life.
    How many people will store 10 years worth of batteries?

    More on the longest lasting battery –
    Edison made one. It was an iron nickel battery.
    To this day, it still works!
    But alas, no AA or AAA sizes.

    Reply to this comment
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